USA NPN National Phenology Network

Taking the Pulse of Our Planet

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Image credit:
Abe Miller-Rushing

Other Phenology Publications

You can use this web bibliography to explore the field of phenology in the peer-reviewed literature.

You'll find that:

  • Climate change is clearly altering the timing, or phenology, of biological events of many species (Root et al. 2003).
  • Many plants and animals have shifted spring activity earlier, though other species have experiences delays or no changes in their phenology (Parmesan 2006, Cleland et al. 2007). 
  • Changes in phenology are caused by environmental cues, such as temperature thresholds and chilling requirements that are species-specific (Cook et al. 2012).
  • Changes in the timing of species’ life cycle events may have major implications for natural resource management, including affecting the timing of allergy seasons, the magnitude of disease outbreaks, wildfire risk, and the activity of invasive species (Westerling et al. 2006, Willis et al. 2010, Grulke 2011, Ziska et al. 2011).
  • The earlier spring documented in many parts of the globe is leading to a longer growing season, with implications for the amount of water returned to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration, the quantity of carbon sequestered via new plant growth, and the number of broods or generations that animals may produce in a single year (Monroe et al. 2009, Jönsson et al. 2009).
  • Increases in productivity have been documented in both forests and lakes as a function of a longer growing season (Shuter and Ing 1997, Richardson et al. 2009).
  • Public participation in scientific efforts is growing, and shedding light on these patterns and questions (Jeong et al. 2013).